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Hagiye kuba ibirori hizihizwa imyaka 500 ishize Martin Luther yitandukanyije na Kiliziya

Hagiye kuba ibirori hizihizwa imyaka 500 ishize Martin Luther yitandukanyije na Kiliziya
9-11-2017 saa 09:29' | By Chief Editor | Yasomwe n'abantu 1574 | Ibitekerezo 6

Kuri uyu wa Gatanu tariki 10 Ugushyingo 2017, Umuryango w’Abaprotestanti mu Rwanda (CPR) uzizihiza isabukuru y’imyaka 500 y’ivugurura mu itorero rya Kristu ku isi, nyuma y’aho Martin Luther wari umupadiri yitandukanyije na Kiliziya Gatulika akajya gutangiza idini ry’Abaprotestanti cyangwa se abahakanyi batemera imwe mu myemerere yo muri Kiliziya.

Ibirori byo kwizihiza Isabukuru y’imyaka 500 Martin Luther akoze amateka yahinduye byinshi mu myemerere y’abatuye isi, bizabera muri Dove Hotel ku Gisozi kuri uyu wa Gatanu nk’uko byashimangiwe na Rugambage Samuel, Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa CPR, wavuze ko ubusanzwe ibyo birori bijya biba tariki ya 31 Ukwakira, ariko igihugu gishobora guhitamo indi tariki bitewe na gahunda zindi zihari.

Mu kiganiro abayobozi ba CPR baherutse kugirana n’abanyamakuru, Bishop Alexis Birindabagabo uyobora uyu muryango, yavuze ko mu birori byabo badaheza ndetse na Kiliziya Gatolika bajya bayitumira kandi ikitabira. Ibi byanashimangiwe na Rugambage Samuel, Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa CPR, washimangiye ko n’ubwo bakomoka kuri Kiliziya Gatolika, kuyitumira atari ukwivuguruza ahubwo ngo ni ukubahana no kuzuzanya kuko bose bahuzwa na Bibiliya.

Abayobozi ba CPR mu kiganiro n’abanyamakuru basobanura iby’ibirori byo kwizihiza isabukuru y’imyaka 500 ishize habaye amavugurura mu Itorero rya Kristo

Tariki ya 31 Ukwakira 1517 nibwo habaye ivugurura mu Itorero rya Kristo bikozwe na Martin Luther, bikaba byarabereye i Wittenberg mu Budage mu cyiswe “La Reforme Protestante”.

IBINTU BY’INGENZI WAMENYA KURI MARTIN LUTHER:

“Hari abavuga ko nta wundi muntu mu mateka wigeze yandikwaho byinshi cyane nk’ibyanditswe kuri Martin Luther, keretse umutware we Yesu Kristo.” Ibyo ni ibyanditswe n’ikinyamakuru cyitwa Time. Ibyo Luther yavuze n’ibyo yakoze byagize uruhare mu kuzana ibitekerezo byo mu rwego rw’idini by’Ivugurura, bavuga ko byari “ihinduka rikomeye cyane mu mateka y’abantu.” Nguko uko yanagize uruhare mu ihinduka ry’imyumvire yo mu rwego rw’idini ndetse no mu ihinduka rikomeye ry’amateka yo ku mugabane w’u Burayi. Ni na we kandi washyizeho urufatiro rw’imyandikire yemewe y’ururimi rw’Ikidage. Bibiliya yahinduwe na Luther na n’ubu ni yo abenshi mu bantu bakoresha ururimi rw’Ikidage bifashisha.

Martin Luther yari muntu ki? Byaje kugenda bite kugira ngo agire ingaruka nka ziriya ku mibereho y’Abanyaburayi?

Luther yavukiye i Eisleben ho mu Budage, mu mwaka wa 1483. N’ubwo bwose se yakoraga mu kirombe bacukuragamo ubutare, yashoboye kubona amafaranga ahagije kugira ngo Martin Luther yige mu mashuri meza. Mu mwaka wa 1501, Martin Luther yagiye kwiga muri Kaminuza ya Erfurt. Mu bubiko bw’ibitabo bwo muri iyo Kaminuza ni ho yasomeye Bibiliya ku ncuro ya mbere. Yagize ati “icyo gitabo cyaranshimishije cyane ndetse narifuzaga nti ‘icyampa umunsi umwe nanjye nkazagira amahirwe yo gutunga igitabo nk’iki.’ ”

Ageze mu kigero cy’imyaka 22, Luther yagiye mu kigo cy’abihaye Imana cy’i Erfurt cyitiriwe Augustin. Nyuma yaje kujya kwiga muri Kaminuza ya Wittenberg, ahakura impamyabumenyi ihanitse mu bya tewolojiya. Luther yumvaga ko Imana itazigera imwemera ndetse rimwe na rimwe yajyaga yumva yihebye kubera ko umutimanama we wamuciraga urubanza. Icyakora kwiyigisha Bibiliya, gusenga ndetse no gutekereza ku byo yasomye byamufashije kurushaho gusobanukirwa uko Imana ibona abanyabyaha. Luther yasobanukiwe ko kwemerwa n’Imana umuntu atabikorera, ahubwo ko abafite ukwizera bose babiheshwa n’ubuntu bw’Imana butagira akagero. (Abaroma 1:16; 3:23, 24, 28.)

Mbese Luther yabwiwe n’iki ko iyo myumvire ye mishya ihuje n’ukuri? Professeur Kurt Aland, umuyobozi w’ikigo gikora ubushakashatsi ku Isezerano Rishya, yaranditse ati “yasomye Bibiliya yose uko yakabaye kandi ayitekerezaho kugira ngo amenye niba ubwo bumenyi bushya yari yungutse buhuza n’ibindi bintu Bibiliya ivuga, maze asanga bihuza ahantu hose.” Inyigisho ivuga ko umuntu adaheshwa agakiza n’imirimo runaka yakoze cyangwa penetensiya yahawe, ko ahubwo agaheshwa no kwizera, yakomeje kuba inyigisho y’ifatizo mu nyigisho za Martin Luther.

Yarakajwe n’indurugensiya

Imyumvire ya Luther ku birebana n’ukuntu Imana ibona abanyabyaha yatumye agirana amakimbirane na Kiliziya Gatolika y’i Roma. Muri icyo gihe abantu benshi bizeraga ko nyuma yo gupfa abanyabyaha bagombaga guhabwa igihano mu gihe runaka. Icyakora bavugaga ko icyo gihe cyashoboraga kugabanywa n’indurugensiya papa yahaga umuntu wese utanze amafaranga. Abantu bagurishaga indurugensiya, urugero nka Johann Tetzel wakoreraga Arikiyepiskopi wa Mainz witwaga Albert, yakoraga ubwo bucuruzi burimo inyungu bwo kugurisha indurugensiya muri rubanda rwa giseseka. Abenshi babonaga ko indurugensiya ari nk’ubwishingizi bw’ibyaha bazakora mu gihe kiri imbere.

Luther yarakajwe cyane n’ubwo bucuruzi bw’indurugensiya. Yari azi ko umuntu adashobora kugura n’Imana. Ku muhindo wo mu mwaka wa 1517, yanditse ibirego 95 bizwi cyane, arega kiliziya ko yakoreshaga nabi ububasha yari ifite mu by’ubukungu, inyigisho no mu by’idini. Luther yoherereje kopi z’ibyo birego Arikiyepiskopi wa Mainz witwaga Albert, ndetse abyoherereza n’izindi ntiti zitandukanye. Yashakaga ko habaho ivugurura; ntiyashakaga kwivumbura kuri kiliziya. Abahanga benshi mu by’amateka bavuga ko Ivugurura ryatangiye mu mwaka wa 1517 cyangwa nyuma yaho gato.

Luther nta bwo ari we wenyine winubiraga amakosa ya kiliziya. Imyaka ijana mbere y’aho, Jan Hus wo muri Repubulika ya Tchèque, waharaniraga ko ibintu byahinduka mu rwego rw’idini, yari yararwanyije ubucuruzi bw’indurugensiya. Uwitwa John Wycliffe w’Umwongereza yari yaragaragaje mbere ya Hus ko imigenzo imwe n’imwe yo muri kiliziya itari ihuje n’ibyanditswe. Abandi bantu babayeho mu gihe kimwe na Luther ari bo Erasmus w’i Rotterdam na Tyndale wo mu Bwongereza basabye ko habaho ivugurura. Ariko inyandiko za Luther ni zo zamenyekanye cyane kandi zigera kure kurusha iz’abandi bose, kuko we yifashishije imashini icapa yahimbwe na Johannes Gutenberg wo mu Budage.

Iyo mashini icapa ya Gutenberg yatangiye gukoreshwa i Mainz mu mwaka wa 1455. Mu ntangiriro z’imyaka ya 1500, mu mijyi 60 yo mu Budage hariyo imashini zicapa, no mu yindi mijyi 12 yo mu bindi bihugu by’i Burayi. Ku ncuro ya mbere mu mateka y’abantu, abaturage bashoboraga kumenya amakuru abashishikaje mu buryo bwihuse. Abantu bacapishije ku mashini bya birego 95 bya Luther baranabikwirakwiza, ariko birashoboka ko nta ruhushya yari yabibahereye. Ikibazo cy’ivugurura muri kiliziya nticyari kikiri ikibazo cyihariwe na bamwe. Cyahindutse ikintu kigibwaho impaka n’abantu benshi maze Martin Luther ahita ahinduka ikimenywabose mu Budage.

“Izuba n’ukwezi” bigira icyo bikora

Hari hashize ibinyejana byinshi u Burayi butegekwa n’ubutegetsi bubiri bwari bufite ingufu: Ubwami Butagatifu bw’Abaroma na Kiliziya Gatolika y’i Roma. Hanns Lilje, wigeze kuba perezida w’umuryango wa Fédération Luthérienne Mondiale asobanura ko “umwami w’abami hamwe na papa bari bunze ubumwe nk’izuba n’ukwezi.” Icyakora, byari bigoye kumenya uwari izuba cyangwa uwari ukwezi. Mu ntangiriro z’imyaka ya 1500, ubwo butegetsi bwombi bwari bwaratangiye gutakaza ingufu. Byagaragaraga ko hari ibintu byari bigiye guhinduka.

Papa Léon wa X yagize icyo avuga kuri ibyo birego 95, ashyira iterabwoba kuri Luther amubwira ko bazamuca muri kiliziya natisubiraho. Luther yaramusuzuguye maze atwikira mu ruhame urwandiko papa yamwandikiye, ndetse asohora n’izindi nyandiko zashishikarizaga ibikomangoma kuvugurura kiliziya kabone n’aho papa yaba atabibahereye uburenganzira. Mu mwaka wa 1521, Papa Léon wa X yaciye Luther muri kiliziya. Igihe Luther yajuriraga avuga ko yarenganye, Umwami w’abami Charles wa V yaramuhamagaje ngo aze yisobanure imbere y’inteko y’ibikomangoma i Worms. Urugendo rw’iminsi 15 Luther yakoze muri Mata 1521 ava i Wittenberg ajya i Worms, rwari nk’urw’umwami utabarukanye insinzi. Abaturage bose bari bamushyigikiye kandi abaturage b’imihanda yose bashakaga kumureba.

Ageze i worms, Luther yagiye kwisobanura imbere y’umwami w’abami, ibikomangoma ndetse n’uwari uhagarariye papa. Jan Hus na we yari yarisobanuye imbere y’inteko nk’iyo i Constance mu mwaka wa 1415 nyuma bamutwikira ku giti. N’ubwo abari bahagarariye kiliziya ndetse n’ibikomangoma bari bamuhanze amaso, Luther yanze kwivuguruza ngo keretse abamurwanyaga bamwemeje ko yibeshye bahereye kuri Bibiliya. Ariko nta n’umwe wabashije kumuhiga mu bumenyi bw’Ibyanditswe. Inyandiko bise Iteka ry’i Worms ni yo yatanze umwanzuro w’urwo rubanza. Iryo teka ryavuze ko Luther ari ikigande kandi ko inyandiko ze ziciwe. Kuko yari yaraciwe na papa n’umwami w’abami amaze kumwita ikigande, ubuzima bwe bwari mu kaga.

Hanyuma habaye ibintu bitunguranye byatangaje abantu cyane. Ari mu nzira asubira i Wittenberg, Luther yashimuswe n’abantu bari batumwe n’umugiraneza Frederick de Saxon, ashaka kuyobya uburari kugira ngo abanzi be badakomeza kumushakisha. Ibyo byatumye Luther acika abanzi be. Baramujyanye bamuhisha mu ngoro y’i Wartburg yari ahantu hitaruye; agezeyo atereka ubwanwa ariyoberanya, asigara azwi ku izina ry’umutware witwaga Junker Jörg.

Abantu bashakaga Bibiliya ya Nzeri ari benshi

Mu mezi icumi yakurikiyeho, Luther yari yihishe muri ya nzu y’umutamenwa y’i Wartburg kuko yahigwaga n’umwami w’abami hamwe na papa. Hari igitabo gisobanura kigira kiti “mu gihe yari ari i Wartburg, ni bwo yanditse ibitabo byinshi mu buzima bwe bwose” (World Heritage). Aho ni na ho yahinduriye inyandiko ya Erasmus y’Ibyanditswe bya Kigiriki mu Kidage, kikaba cyari kimwe mu bintu bihambaye yakoze. Kubera ko batigeze bashyiraho izina rya Luther wayihinduye, iyo Bibiliya yacapwe muri Nzeri 1522 yaje kwitwa Bibiliya ya Nzeri. Yaguraga amafaranga angana n’umushahara w’umwaka w’umukozi wo mu rugo. Ariko, ibyo ntibyabujije ko iyo Bibiliya ya Nzeri ishakwa n’abantu benshi cyane. Mu mezi cumi n’abiri, iyo Bibiliya yasubiwemo incuro ebyiri hacapwa kopi 6.000, ndetse mu myaka 12 yakurikiyeho iyo Bibiliya yasubiwemo incuro zigera kuri 69.

Mu mwaka wa 1525, Martin Luther yashyingiranywe na Katharina von Bora, wahoze ari umubikira. Katharina yari azi kwita ku by’urugo kandi yari ashoboye kwita ku bibazo byaterwaga n’uko umugabo we yagiraga ubuntu. Uretse umugore n’abana batandatu, umuryango wa Luther waje kwakira incuti, intiti, n’izindi mpunzi. Mu myaka ya nyuma y’ubuzima bwe, Luther yari umujyanama wubashywe cyane, ku buryo intiti zabaga zaje iwe zazaga zitwaje amakaramu n’impapuro byo kwandikaho inama ari buzihe. Izo nyandiko zabumbiwe hamwe mu gitabo cyiswe Luthers Tischreden (Ibiganiro Luther yavugiraga ku meza). Hashize igihe icyo gitabo gifite umwanya wa kabiri nyuma ya Bibiliya mu byasomwaga cyane mu rurimi rw’Ikidage.

Yari umuhinduzi w’umuhanga kandi yanditse ibitabo byinshi

Luther yarangije guhindura Ibyanditswe bya Giheburayo mu mwaka wa 1534. Yari afite ubuhanga bwo guhuza imyandikire, injyana no guhitamo amagambo. Ibyo byatumye haboneka Bibiliya yumvikana neza kuri rubanda rusanzwe. Luther yanditse avuga ku buryo yakoresheje ahindura. Yagize ati “twaganiriye n’umubyeyi mu rugo iwe, tuganira n’abana mu muhanda ndetse n’umuturage usanzwe mu isoko, dutega amatwi twitonze twumva uko bavuga, maze duhindura dukurikije uko bavugaga.” Bibiliya ya Luther yaje kuba urufatiro rw’amategeko y’imyandikire y’ururimi yaje kwemerwa hose mu Budage.

Luther ntiyari afite ubuhanga bwo guhindura gusa, ahubwo yari n’umwanditsi w’umuhanga. Bavuga ko mu gihe cyose yamaze yandika, yasohoraga inyandiko buri byumweru bibiri. Zimwe muri izo nyandiko zarimo amakare nk’aya nyirazo. N’ubwo inyandiko ze za mbere zari zirimo imvugo ityaye, nta bwo imvugo ye yigeze igabanya ubukana uko Luther yagendaga asaza. Inyandiko ze za nyuma zo zagendaga zirushaho kugira ubukana. Hari igitabo kivuga ko ibyo Luther yanditse bigaragaza “ubukana bwe bw’indengakamere” hamwe no “kubura ukwicisha bugufi n’urukundo,” ndetse n’ “ibyiyumvo bikomeye yari afite byo kumva ko yatumwe n’Imana.”—Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche (Inkoranyamagambo ya tewolojiya na Kiliziya).

Igihe intambara y’abaturage yarotaga maze abantu benshi bakicwa mu turere twategekwaga n’ibikomangoma, babajije Luther icyo atekereza kuri iyo myivumbagatanyo. Mbese abaturage bari bafite impamvu yumvikana yo kwivumbura kuri abo bategetsi babo? Luther ntiyigeze ashaka kwikundisha kuri abo baturage ngo atange igisubizo cyari gushimisha abenshi muri bo. Yizeraga ko abagaragu b’Imana bagombye kumvira abategetsi (Abaroma 13:1). Luther yavuze atabiciye ku ruhande ko iyo myivumbagatanyo igomba guhoshwa hakoreshejwe ingufu. Yagize ati “ubishoboye wese abasogote, abarwanye, abice.” Hanns Lilje yavuze ko icyo gisubizo cyatumye Luther atakaza “abenshi mu bantu bari bamushyigikiye icyo gihe.” Ikindi kandi, inyandiko Luther yanditse ku Bayahudi banze guhindukirira Ubukristo, cyane cyane iyo yise On the Jews and Their Lies (Abayahudi n’ibinyoma byabo), yatumye benshi bavuga ko uwanditse ibyo bitabo yangaga Abayahudi.

Umurage Luther yasize

Ivugurura ryatangijwe n’abantu nka ba Luther, Calvin na Zwingli, ryatumye havuka imyumvire mishya yo mu rwego rw’idini bise Ubuporotesitanti. Umurage w’ingenzi Luther yasigiye Ubuporotesitanti ni inyigisho ye y’ibanze y’uko ukwizera ari ko gutuma umuntu yemerwa n’Imana. Buri ntara yo mu Budage yategekwaga n’igikomangoma yashyigikiraga Abaporotesitanti cyangwa Abagatolika. Ubuporotesitanti bwarakwirakwiriye kandi bushyigikirwa n’abantu benshi bo mu Bihugu byo mu majyaruguru y’i Burayi, mu Busuwisi, mu Bwongereza no mu Buholandi. Ubu hari Abaporotesitanti babarirwa muri za miriyoni amagana.

Abenshi mu bantu batemera imyizerere ya Luther yose n’ubu baracyamwubaha. Mu cyahoze ari Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi y’u Budage, yari ikubiyemo n’intara za Eisleben, Erfurt, Wittenberg, Wartburg; mu mwaka wa 1983 bizihije isabukuru y’imyaka 500 Luther amaze avutse. Ibyo bihugu by’Abasosiyalisiti byemeje ko ari umuntu ukomeye mu mateka n’umuco byo mu Budage. Ikirenze ibyo, umuhanga mu bya tewolojiya w’Umugatolika wo mu myaka ya 1980, yavuze mu magambo make ingaruka Luther yagize ku bantu agira ati “nta muntu wabayeho nyuma ya Luther wahwana na we.” Professeur Aland yaranditse ati “buri mwaka handikwa nibura ibitabo bishya 500 bivuga kuri Martin Luther cyangwa ku Ivugurura; kandi byandikwa hafi mu ndimi zose zikoreshwa cyane kurusha izindi ku isi.”

Martin Luther yari azi ubwenge cyane, akabasha kwibuka ibintu byinshi cyane; yari intyoza mu magambo kandi yagiraga umwete cyane mu kazi. Ntiyihanganiraga na gato ibyo yabonaga ko ari uburyarya: byamuteraga ishozi kandi yahitaga agira icyo akora. Muri Gashyantare 1546, ubwo Luther yari i Eisleben aryamye agiye gupfa, incuti ze zamubajije niba agitsimbaraye ku myizerere yigishije abandi. Yarashubije ati “yego.” Luther yarapfuye ariko abantu benshi baracyakomeye ku myizerere ye.


INKURU ZA :
Tanga Igitekerezo
Ibitekerezo 6
DYNA Kuya 10-11-2017

NARI NAMWEMEYE LUTHER ARIKO NIBA YARABESHYE UMUBIKIRA KO ARIKUBONEKERWA KDI ARIWE URI MURI PLAFON BIRIVANZE NTAMUNTU W’IMANA UKORA ATYO PE. GUSA KUBINDI YAKOZE IMANA IMUHE UMUGISHA.

Protais Kuya 10-11-2017

Iyo mushyiramo na bimwe muri ibyo birego 95 yareze Kiliziya Gatolika byari gufasha abatari bake. Ariko abafite icyo babiziho babidukorere

Albert Kuya 10-11-2017

Imana yaramukoresheje ashyira ukuri ahagaragara, n’ubwo ubu isi yiyungiye kukurwanya imyemerere ye ariko turabizi ko agakiza gatangwa ku buntu binyuze muri YESU KRISTO bityo ko nta muntu ugomba kujya hagati y’umuntu n’Imana uretse YESU watumeneye amaraso.
rero Luther yarakoze gushyira ukuri ahagaragara bonan’ubwo kutakwemerwa.

Luteri Kuya 9-11-2017

Nibyo rero abantu b’intyoza bashobora guhindura byinshi kdi bikayobya benshi! for ex: Mugesera,! na M.Luter niko byagenze ngo n’uburyo yarongoye umugore we Gatalina wari umubikira buratangaje kuko yamubeshye yabonekewe n’Imana, kdi ariwe wihishe muri pulafo. Abamuri inyuma rero nababwira iki?

Anet Kuya 9-11-2017

Abantu yayobeje azabibazwa igihe nikigera

anet Kuya 9-11-2017

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